The Republic of Niger, a country located in sub-Saharan Africa, is bordered on the north by Algeria and Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Benin, on the west by Burkina Faso and northwest by Mali. Because of its size, Niger is one of the largest countries in West Africa with 1,267,000 km2. It is also a landlocked country with no access to the sea. The nearest port is located nearly 1,000 km away. Its climate is tropical Sudanese type. It is characterized by two main seasons: a very long dry season that lasts about eight months, from October to May and a short rainy season that lasts four to five months, from April (or May) to September. On the other hand, Niger’s population lives mainly on agriculture, livestock farming, fishing and handicrafts. The history of the territory, which has become modern Niger today, is very rich in events. It has been marked, since the 7th century after Christ, by important migrations and multiple mixings of populations favored by its geographical position and the rapid expansion of Islam. The Republic of Niger gained independence in 1960, like many other African regions. The official language is French.